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terça-feira, 4 de março de 2014

LITERATURE REVIEW


A short review of the book "Techniques and principles in language teaching" by Diana Larsen-Freeman (2000), where, according to the author, the actions are the techniques and the thoughts are the principles since she conceives the term "Language teaching method" as a coherent set of links between actions and thoughts in the procedure of teaching a foreign language.

Therefore, she tries to bring out thoughts that guide someone's action as a teacher which one may not be conscious about and she also demonstrates how to put those theories into action. According to the author, all the methodological theories she wrote in the book were based on her own experience in teaching the methods/approaches course at the School for International training.

In this book, the author describes some of the main methods used in the language pedagogy that contributes enormously to amplify the perspective in teaching a second language, such as: Grammar-translation method, Community language learning, Total physical response, Suggestopedia, The silent way, The natural approach, The direct method and The audio-lingual method.

A brief inspection in the book Learner-centered English Language Education by David Nunan reveals some of his useful theories in teaching a second language which are the deductive and inductive approaches. According to the author David Nunan, the deductive approach is more traditional and teacher-centered and it is based on the open explanations displayed by the teacher while the inductive is learner-centered and the teacher’s role is to conduct students to get the idea through inferences.

Both the deductive and inductive approaches are unavoidably necessary when it comes to teaching in a public school and for the inductive one is even more revolutionary and indispensable in order to break the traditional approach and allow the classes to be more learner-centered and thus arousing some autonomy in the students' learning process.

Just like the learner-centered and constructivism assumptions, the National Curriculum Parameters also conceive education as a means of constructing autonomous people who are able to think, reflect, act and transform their surroundings for better. For the National Curriculum Parameters, education is a tool of social transformation with humanistic conceptions where students should be prepared not just for the academic matters but they should also be taught how to find their places in society. It concerns about creating people aware of their position in the world trying to cover all the human needs.

New direct and indirect influential texts and media that served to set up this work will be also included in this final report: "No Books and 150 Students" by Kim Hughes, where the author demonstrates that it is possible to teach efficient classes in a context with few resources. "To teach Standard English or World Englishes? A balanced approach to instruction" by Thomas S. C. Farrell and Sonia Martin, the authors discuss about the differences of the English language around the world trying to break the linguistic and cultural bias, he raise awareness that there is not the ideal English but rather many cultural and linguistic diversity that should be respected as well. The movie Freedom writers by Richard LaGravenese, contributed to show that the craft of teaching goes beyond the curriculum contents where the teacher acted as a transformer of students' perspectives and lives for better.

"Learner-centered English Language Education" by David Nunan, which he defends that the function of education is to enable students to learn and it is devoted to the students needs. The book "TESOL" by Kumaravadivelu, which he shows weak points about authenticity, acceptability and adaptability in CLT. "Second Language Teaching & Learning" by David Nunan, which he demonstrates the distinction between an humanistic tradition (behaviorism) and the experiential model (constructivism). "Classroom management" by Marilyn Lewis which she talks about the two motivations in the class: the intrinsic and the extrinsic one. "The ELT Curriculum: A flexible model for a changing world" by Denise Finney, which she approaches the models of curriculum focusing mainly on the constructivism principles, where the classes must be learner-centered for students autonomy and focus on the function of the communication.